Category Archives: SQL

How to enable TDE (SQL 2017/Azure SQL Database)

TDE is a SQL Server feature which encrypts your data at rest, i.e. your database files. When TDE is enabled encryption of the database file is performed at the page level. The pages in an encrypted database are encrypted before they are written to disk and decrypted when read into memory. TDE does not increase the size of the encrypted database. Here is TDE architecture schema from MSFT documentation:

Transparent Data Encryption Architecture

Transparent Data Encryption Architecture

This blog post explains how to enable Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) for SQL Database (on-premise/Azure).

Scenario 1. On-premise SQL Server 2017 (this will also work for SQL Server in a Azure VM). You can use the following SQL script to enable TDE:

Be sure to replace ‘K2’ with your target database name and adjust password value. Script uses IF clauses to avid creating things which already exist (which are missing in the sample script you can find in MSFT documentation). Once TDE is enabled you can confirm this in the database properties using SSMS GUI:

Scenario 2. Azure SQL Database. Script mentioned above won’t work here. Easiest/default approach to enable TDE for Azure SQL Database is to do so from Azure Portal:

This approach called service-managed transparent data encryption and by default database encryption key is protected by a built-in server certificate. All newly created SQL databases are encrypted by default by using service-managed transparent data encryption.

Other approach called Bring Your Own Key and requires use of Azure Key Vault.

TDE can also be managed with PowerShell, Transact-SQL and REST API. PowerShell contains number of cmdlets for that:

 

And using T-SQL you can use ALTER DATABASE (Azure SQL Database) SET ENCRYPTION ON/OFF command (encrypts or decrypts a database) and two dynamic management views:

  • databasesys.dm_database_encryption_keys which returns information about the encryption state of a database and its associated database encryption keys
  • sys.dm_pdw_nodes_database_encryption_keys which returns information about the encryption state of each data warehouse node and its associated database encryption keys

Once TDE has been enabled there is also options to check whether it is enabled or not using T-SQL:

For further information refer to official MSFT documentation:

Transparent Data Encryption (TDE)

The SQL Server Security Blog on TDE with FAQ

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How to: Connect to Azure SQL from Visual Studio

This specific day is already described by some people as GDPRmageddon based on amount of emails people receive from all companies they ever dealt with at one or another point about their policies updates and so on. I’m not going to talk about this today, instead I decided to write this tiny post on how to connect to Azure SQL from Visual Studio.

Actually short answer to this is just fire off Visual Studio and select View > SQL Server Object Explorer, the rest is just “follow the wizard” thing, and it is all documented by MSFT of course. But I’m quite well aware about widespread allergy to official documentation (no matter how good it is) and also wanted to try this my self for the very first time recently, and this is how this post came about.

QUESTION: How to connect to Azure SQL from Visual Studio?

ANSWER:

1) First things first. Assuming you don’t have Visual Studio installed on your machine, you should download and install it. There is a free version named Visual Studio Community which can be downloaded here: https://www.visualstudio.com/vs/community

2) Once tiny web installer downloaded run it and click continue to kick off installation process:

Tiny installer will start fetching data from the internet before installing components on your  machine:

3) Once data downloaded you can opt in for default installation which will require 597 MB of disk space:

4) Once installation is complete Visual Studio will suggest you Sign up or Sign In to use additional services, but you can avoid that by clicking “Not now, maybe later” link:

5) Of course you must select Dark theme otherwise nothing will work and click on Start Visual Studio button 🙂

Of course other themes work too but you would look suspiciously in the developers crowd 🙂

6) Once Visual Studio opened you supposed to go to View > SQL Server Object Explorer, and… And if you followed previous steps exactly/selected default Visual Studio installation configuration SQL Server Object Explorer won’t be available in View menu:

7) To address this, re-run Visual Studio installer, open Individual components tab and mark SQL Server Data Tools component – it will automatically select bunch of dependencies upping disk space requirements from 597 MB to 2,52 GB:

8) Once installation complete, re-run Visual Studio and click SQL Server Object Explorer from View menu:

9) Once it opened, right click on SQL Server node in SQL Server Object Explorer tree and select “Add SQL Server…” option:

10) It will start Connect wizard where you can specify your Azure SQL server name and credentials (yes even for Azure SQL database you are connecting through “SQL server” which is logical entity you must have to connect to Azure SQL database(s) and should not be confused with SQL Server in Azure VM 🙂 ):

 

11) Both SSMS and Visual Studio are smart enough to detect if your server name and credentials are good but you don’t have firewall rule created to allow connection, and if you provide your Azure credentials these applications will be able to create required firewall rule for you:

To provide credentials you supposed to click on “Add an account…” under Azure account as shown above. It will open standard Microsoft credentials prompt dialog:

After you provided valid credentials you should be able to click OK in the previous window to create firewall rule:

If you navigate to Azure portal you will be able to see your public IP added to Azure SQL server firewall rules there.

12) And with valid credentials and firewall rule in place you will be able to connect and browse through your databases and objects and execute SQL queries more or less in the same way as in SSMS:

I hope now you are clear on how to connect to Azure SQL from Visual Studio 🙂 But in case you still have any questions just leave them in comments.

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Exam Prep Resources for Microsoft Azure 70-473 Design and Implement Cloud Data Platform Solutions

I’m currently preparing for 70-473  Design and Implement Cloud Data Platform Solutions exam, so I’ve decided to compile a list of resources which may be useful to prepare for this exam. I’m going to append it with additional materials as I keep working on my preparation and I hope it may be useful to other test takers.

As with any MSFT exam your starting point has to be MSFT exam description page which contains run down of all exam topics as well as links to additional resources, so here it is – Exam 70-473 Designing and Implementing Cloud Data Platform Solutions. You should keep in mind that though this exam has been released in December 2015, it is being updated quarterly, so once in a while you need to check exam page to see if any new topics were added there. At the moment last update to this exam was made in June 2017 and changes are explained in exam 70-473 change document.

Paid resources:

70-473 Cloud Data Platform Solutions course by SoftwareArchitect.ca – this is an affordable (25$) online course which I bought and used during my preparation – good overview of all concepts at a fair price, and when I searched it was only 70-473 specific course from online training vendors which I was able to find. Author goes through all the “skills measured” topics as they stated in exam description. What I dislike about this course is amount of typos and some little issues like mismatch between numbering and naming  of videos in course navigation pane and inside of the videos themselves. One exactly the same video even inserted/listed twice there. So I would describe it as lack of QA/editing problem. My other complain would be lack of hands-on demos, there are some of them in the course but I wanted more. 🙂 Only after completion of the course I found that it is also available on Udemy and there it was priced 9,99$ with discount when I checked – so check both locations and compare prices if you want to try it.

Free resources and video recordings:

Certification Exam Overview: 70-473: Designing and Implementing Cloud Data Platform Solutions MVA course

Cert Exam Prep: Exam 70-473: Cloud Data Platform Solutions – exam overview video by MCT James Herring

Second link is YouTube video, looks like both of these links cover more or less the same material and delivered by the same person, yet YouTube session has newer slides, it seems, and they are not absolutely identical – so watch both of them.

Channel 9 – Keeping Sensitive Data Secure with Always Encrypted

YouTube – Secure your data in Azure SQL Database and SQL Data Warehouse

MSFT documentation:

Resolving Transact-SQL differences during migration to SQL Database

This article covers things which will work in SQL queries run on on-prem SQL Server while won’t work while run against Azure SQL DB. For example things you probably discovery very quickly is that USE statement is not supported.

Azure SQL Database – Controlling and granting database access

Article explains unrestricted administrative accounts, server-level administrative roles and non-administrator users + “access paths”.

Sizes for Windows virtual machines in Azure

General purpose virtual machine sizes

High performance compute VM sizes

You may expect questions around VM sizing based on given requirements so need to remember which series has premium storage and which not along with some other things which you can learn from the articles above.

Securing your SQL Database

Always Encrypted (Database Engine)

Always Encrypted Wizard

This article explains 2 very important things you should be aware of: key storage options and Always Encrypted Terms.

SQL Database dynamic data masking

Azure Blog – Microsoft Azure SQL Database provides unparalleled data security in the cloud with Always Encrypted

Azure SQL has loads of security features and you supposed to know them all 🙂 At least when to use, along with requirements and limitations.

Azure Cosmos DB: SQL API getting started tutorial

Get started with Azure Table storage and the Azure Cosmos DB Table API using .NET

ADO.NET Overview

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SQL script to attach detached non-consolidated K2 DBs

I keep playing with SQL and non-consolidated K2 DBs and in previous post I covered bringing “these 14” back online, now I realized that other case where SSMS requires way too many click is attaching “these 14” back (let’s say after you rebuild your SQL instance system DBs to change instance collation).

Quick google allowed me to find relevant question on dba.stackexchange.com where I took script which generates CREATE DATABASE FOR ATTACH for all existing user databases. Next having my 14 non consolidated K2 DBs I generated the following script to attach them back in bulk:

You can either use this CREATE DATABASE FOR ATTACH for all existing user databases script while your K2 databases are still attached, of it they are not just replace paths in script listed above and execute modified script to attach them quickly.

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SQL Script to switch all currently RO databases to RW mode

I was doing some testing of K2 databases consolidation process which required me to re-run database consolidation process more than once to re-try it. Unfortunately K2 Database Consolidation Tool leaves all databases in read-only mode if something fails during consolidation process. If you remember K2 used to have 14 separate data bases prior to consolidated DB was introduced (see picture below).

Typing 14 statements manually to bring all these database to read-write mode is a bit time consuming so I came up with the following script:

Essentially it will select all databases currently in RO state and will output bunch of statements to bring all of them to RW state as an output:

Just copy-paste this script output into new query window of SSMS and press F5 🙂

It may be useful for you once in a while (and if not for this specific use case, then as an example of generating some repetitive statements which contain select statement results inside).

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